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the geometric surface is explicite and known by the mesh3 type. This may be due to the nature of the data mesh list of vertices, tetrahedra, triangles, edges or a surface building by FreeFEM with the calling of buildSurface operator. In this case, savesurfacemesh allows to save the real geometry of the surface 3d mesh list of vertices, triangles, edges. A surface 3d mesh can be the result of the generation of several assembled meshes, with caution of the right orientation at the merged interfaces.

For the moment, the case of no manifold mesh are not considered in FreeFEM. To check if the meshS contains no manifold elements, the command nbnomanifold. The function segment is a basic command to define a curve in 3D space. This operator allows to define a curve mesh from multi-borders.

The domain can be defined by a parametrized curve keyword border , such as Th1 in the following example or piecewise by parametrized curves, such as the construction of the mesh Th2. This operator allows to define a meshL by truncating another one, i. Here, an example to use this function:. The definition of the geometric transformation depends on the space dimension of the studied problem. The command change changes the label of elements and border elements of a meshL.

The command Gamma allows to extract the border mesh independly of a surface mesh. With this function, the constructed border mesh contains the full geometric description of th eboundary surface.

The result returns a meshL , with caution of the right orientation at the merged interfaces. Here, the function checkmesh can be called. To check if the meshL contains no manifold elements, the command nbnomanifold. This operator allows to extract a labeled piece or the entire border of a 2D mesh and project it in 3D. Optionally, a geometic transformation can be applied. This operator, used in the last example, allows to reconstruted the border elements following a special criteria ridgeangledetection.

This function is avalaible for all 3D meshes. The possible arguments are. TetGen is a software developed by Dr. Hang Si of Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics in Berlin, Germany [HANG]. TetGen is free for research and non-commercial use. For any commercial license utilization, a commercial license is available upon request to Hang Si. This software is a tetrahedral mesh generator of a three dimensional domain defined by its boundary a surface.

The input domain takes into account a polyhedral or a piecewise linear complex. This tetrahedralization is a constrained Delaunay tetrahedralization. The method used in TetGen to control the quality of the mesh is a Delaunay refinement due to Shewchuk [SHEWCHUK].

The quality measure of this algorithm is the Radius-Edge Ratio see Section 1. A theoretical bound of this ratio of the Shewchuk algorithm is obtained for a given complex of vertices, constrained segments and facets of surface mesh, with no input angle less than 90 degrees.

This theoretical bound is 2. The launch of TetGen is done with the keyword tetg. The parameters of this command line is:. This parameter is initialized as a label for the keyword change.

This string corresponds to the command line switch of TetGen see Section 3. In TetGen, each hole is associated with a point inside this domain. This parameters has no effect if switch q is not selected. p Tetrahedralization of boundary. The bound of Radius-Edge Ratio will be given after the option q. By default, this value is 2. These volumes constraints are defined with the bound of the previous switch q or in the parameter regionlist.

The option AA gives a different label at each region. This switch works with the option p. If option r is used, this switch has no effect. This character is only used with the command line tetgreconstruction. Y This switch preserves the mesh on the exterior boundary. YY This switch preserves the mesh on the exterior and interior boundary. More information can be obtained in specified VV or VVV.

Q Quiet: No terminal output except errors. M The coplanar facets are not merging. d Intersections of facets are detected. To obtain a tetrahedral mesh with TetGen, we need the surface mesh of a three dimensional domain. We now give the command line in FreeFEM to construct these meshes. This keyword corresponds to a composition of command line tetg and movemesh The parameters of this command line are, on one hand, the parameters label , switch , regionlist , nboffacetcl , facetcl of keyword tetg and on the other hand, the parameter ptmerge of keyword movemesh Therefore, the parameter regionlist is defined for one region.

An example of this keyword can be found in line 61 of the Build layer mesh example. FreeFEM , using TetGen, is able to build a tetrahedralization from a set of points. This tetrahedralization is a Delaunay mesh of the convex hull of the set of points. The coordinates of the points can be initialized in two ways.

This file is organized as follows:. Meshes in three dimension can be refined using TetGen with the command line tetgreconstruction. This array is defined as the parameter reftet in the keyword change. This array is defined as the parameter label in the keyword change. This function constraints the volume size of the tetrahedra in the domain see Isotrope mesh adaption section to build a 3d adapted mesh. The parameters switch , nbofregions , regionlist , nboffacetcl and facetcl of the command line which call TetGen tetg is used for tetgrefine.

For instance, see the manual of TetGen [HANG] for effect of r to other character. The parameter regionlist defines a new volume constraint in the region.

The label in the regionlist will be the previous label of region. Users who want to read a triangulation made elsewhere should see the structure of the file generated below:. The mesh is shown on Fig. The information about Th are saved in the file mesh. msh whose structure is shown on Table 1. An external file contains a mesh at format. In the Fig. In FreeFEM there are many mesh file formats available for communication with other tools such as emc2 , modulef , … see Mesh format chapter.

The extension of a file implies its format. More details can be found on the file format. msh in the article by F. A mesh file can be read into FreeFEM except that the names of the borders are lost and only their reference numbers are kept. So these borders have to be referenced by the number which corresponds to their order of appearance in the program, unless this number is overwritten by the keyword label.

Here are some examples:. The function vtkload allows to build a mesh from a data mesh at vtk format mesh. In three dimensions, the file mesh format supported for input and output files by FreeFEM are the extension. msh and. These formats are described in the Mesh Format section. Extension file. msh The structure of the files with extension. msh in 3D is given by:. The boundary consists of a union of triangles. extension file. mesh The data structure for a three dimensional mesh is composed of the data structure presented in Mesh Format section and a data structure for the tetrahedra.

The tetrahedra of a three dimensional mesh are referred using the following field:. This field is express with the notation of Mesh Format section. The function vtkload3 allows to build a mesh3 from a data mesh at vtk format mesh.

Like 2d and 3d, the input and output format files supported by FreeFEM are the extension. msh in surface 3D is given by:. The function vtkloadS allows to build a meshS from a data mesh at vtk format mesh.

medit opens its own window and uses OpenGL extensively. Naturally to use this command medit must be installed. The first plot named sol1 display f1. The second plot names sol2 display f2. The arguments of the function medit are the name of the differents scenes separated by a space of medit , a mesh and solutions. Each solution is associated with one scene. The scalar, vector and symmetric tensor solutions are specified in the format described in the section dealing with the keyword savesol.

sol or. solb to save solutions. This command line allows also to represent two differents meshes and solutions on them in the same windows. The nature of solutions must be the same. Hence, we can vizualize in the same window the different domains in a domain decomposition method for instance. Mshmet is a software developed by P. Frey that allows to compute an anisotropic metric based on solutions i. This software can return also an isotropic metric.

Moreover, mshmet can also construct a metric suitable for levelset interface capturing. For example, the solution can be an error estimate of a FE solution. Solutions for mshmet are given as an argument. The solution can be a func , a vector func , a symmetric tensor, a fespace function, a fespace vector function and a fespace symmetric tensor. The symmetric tensor argument is defined as this type of data for datasol argument.

This software accepts more than one solution. The parameters of the keyword mshmet are :. This vector contains an initial metric given to mshmet. The structure of the metric vector is described in the next paragraph. This vector contains the integer parameters of mshmet for expert only. This vector contains the real parameters of mshmet for expert only. FreeYams is a surface mesh adaptation software which is developed by P.

This software is a new version of yams. The adapted surface mesh is constructed with a geometric metric tensor field. This field is based on the intrinsic properties of the discrete surface. Also, this software allows to construct a simplification of a mesh. This decimation is based on the Hausdorff distance between the initial and the current triangulation.

Compared to the software yams, FreeYams can be used also to produce anisotropic triangulations adapted to levelset simulations. A technical report on freeYams documentation is available here. To call FreeYams in FreeFEM , we used the keyword freeyams.

The metric with freeyams are a func , a fespace function, a symmetric tensor function, a symmetric tensor fespace function or a vector of double real [ int ].

If the metric is a vector of double, this data must be given in metric parameter. Otherwise, the metric is given in the argument. The symmetric tensor argument for freeyams keyword is defined as this type of data for datasol argument.

This parameters contains the metric at the different vertices on the initial mesh. This parameter is only used with No-Shrinkage Vertex Smoothing optimization optimization option parameter 9. The ridge definition is given in the parameter doptions Mmg3d is a 3D remeshing software developed by C. Dobrzynski and P. This software allows to remesh an initial mesh made of tetrahedra. This initial mesh is adapted to a geometric metric tensor field or to a displacement vector moving rigid body.

The metric can be obtained with mshmet. If no metric is given, an isotropic metric is computed by analyzing the size of the edges in the initial mesh. If a displacement is given, the vertices of the surface triangles are moved without verifying the geometrical structure of the new surface mesh. The parameters of mmg3d are :. This vector contains the option parameters of mmg3d.

It is a vector of 6 values, with the following meaning:. Set the maximum memory size of new mesh in Mbytes. By default the number of maximum vertices, tetrahedra and triangles are respectively , , which represent approximately a memory of Mo.

This vector contains the metric given at mmg3d. The structure of metric vector is described in the mshmet. This vector contains the displacement at each point of the initial mesh. The idea is to get the discretization of an isoline of fluid meshes, this tool can be useful to construct meshes from image. The list of named parameter are :. The smoothing default value is 0. The sense of the isoline is such that the upper part is at the left size of the isoline.

Introduction Version 4. Dynamical link A first example myfunction. Why Domain Decomposition Methods? Convection 2D Black-Scholes equation for an European Put option Navier-Stokes equations Uzawa Algorithm and Conjugate Gradients NSUzawaCahouetChabart. Mesh Generation In this section, operators and tools on meshes are presented. FreeFEM type for mesh variable: 1D mesh: meshL 2D mesh: mesh 3D volume mesh: mesh3 3D border meshes 3D surface meshS 3D curve meshL Through this presentation, the principal commands for the mesh generation and links between mesh - mesh3 - meshS - meshL are described.

The type mesh in 2 dimension Commands for 2d mesh Generation The FreeFEM type to define a 2d mesh object is mesh. The command square The command square triangulates the unit square. eps" ;. Note Notice that the orientation is changed by b in the 5th line. Note Borders are evaluated only at the time plot or buildmesh is called so the global variables are defined at this time.

msh" ; 16 }. Note As ratio gets closer to 1, the number of generated vertices increases. In the mids, as Japanese consumer electronics firms forged ahead with the development of HDTV technology, the MUSE analog format proposed by NHK , a Japanese company, was seen as a pacesetter that threatened to eclipse U. electronics companies' technologies. Until June , the Japanese MUSE standard, based on an analog system, was the front-runner among the more than 23 other technical concepts under consideration.

Then, a U. company, General Instrument, demonstrated the possibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally-based standard could be developed. In March , when it became clear that a digital standard was possible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images.

Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements.

The last standards adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios , or lines of resolution. This compromise resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry joined by some broadcasters and the computer industry joined by the film industry and some public interest groups over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—would be best suited for the newer digital HDTV compatible display devices.

In fact, interlaced scanning can be looked at as the first video compression model as it was partly designed in the s to double the image resolution to exceed the limitations of the television broadcast bandwidth. Another reason for its adoption was to limit the flickering on early CRT screens whose phosphor coated screens could only retain the image from the electron scanning gun for a relatively short duration.

Progressive scanning , the format that the computer industry had long adopted for computer display monitors, scans every line in sequence, from top to bottom. The computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not "flicker" on the new standard of display devices in the manner of interlaced scanning. It also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa.

The film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offered a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats. For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures then and currently feasible, i.

Broadcasters also favored interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced programming is not readily compatible with a progressive format.

William F. Schreiber , who was director of the Advanced Television Research Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from until his retirement in , thought that the continued advocacy of interlaced equipment originated from consumer electronics companies that were trying to get back the substantial investments they made in the interlaced technology. Digital television transition started in late s. All governments across the world set the deadline for analog shutdown by s.

Initially, the adoption rate was low, as the first digital tuner-equipped television sets were costly. But soon, as the price of digital-capable television sets dropped, more and more households were converting to digital television sets.

The transition is expected to be completed worldwide by mid to late s. The advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart television sets. A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet and Web 2. Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional Broadcasting media, these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media , over-the-top content , as well as on-demand streaming media , and home networking access.

These TVs come pre-loaded with an operating system. Smart TV should not to be confused with Internet TV , Internet Protocol television IPTV or with Web TV. Internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems—terrestrial, cable and satellite although Internet itself is received by these methods.

IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television networks. Web television WebTV is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. A first patent was filed in [] and extended the following year [] for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network.

Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs. Major TV manufacturers have announced production of smart TVs only, for middle-end and high-end TVs in households having at least one as of Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system , and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses.

Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August , by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at Long Acre, London. The first 3D television was produced in The advent of digital television in the s greatly improved 3D television sets. Although 3D television sets are quite popular for watching 3D home media such as on Blu-ray discs, 3D programming has largely failed to make inroads with the public. Many 3D television channels which started in the early s were shut down by the mids.

According to DisplaySearch 3D televisions shipments totaled Programming is broadcast by television stations, sometimes called "channels", as stations are licensed by their governments to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band. At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i. In the U. By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television license fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC , which had public service as part of its Royal Charter.

WRGB claims to be the world's oldest television station, tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on 13 January , broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY , under the call letters W2XB. Later in , General Electric started a second facility, this one in New York City, which had the call letters W2XBS and which today is known as WNBC.

The two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were operated by engineers within the company. The image of a Felix the Cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for 2 hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers.

On 2 November , the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. All other countries around the world are also in the process of either shutting down analog terrestrial television or switching over to digital terrestrial television. Cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency RF signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

This contrasts with traditional terrestrial television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. In the s, FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.

The abbreviation CATV is sometimes used for cable television in the United States. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. Satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites.

The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter LNB. A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television program for viewing on a television set.

Receivers can be external set-top boxes , or a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services, especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television. The most common method of reception is direct-broadcast satellite television DBSTV , also known as "direct to home" DTH. These systems received analog signals transmitted in the C-band spectrum from FSS type satellites, and required the use of large dishes.

Consequently, these systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, and were more expensive and less popular. The direct-broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals, both of which require a compatible receiver. Digital signals may include high-definition television HDTV. Some transmissions and channels are free-to-air or free-to-view , while many other channels are pay television requiring a subscription. Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit.

The first satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic Ocean on 23 July The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on 6 April The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.

The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry Direct-To-Home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October Internet television Internet TV or online television is the digital distribution of television content via the Internet as opposed to traditional systems like terrestrial, cable, and satellite, although the Internet itself is received by terrestrial, cable, or satellite methods.

Internet television is a general term that covers the delivery of television series, and other video content, over the Internet by video streaming technology, typically by major traditional television broadcasters. Internet television should not be confused with Smart TV , IPTV or with Web TV. Smart television refers to the television set which has a built-in operating system.

Internet Protocol television IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television networks. Web television is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet television. A television set, also called a television receiver, television, TV set, TV, or "telly", is a device that combines a tuner, display, an amplifier, and speakers for the purpose of viewing television and hearing its audio components.

Introduced in the late s in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II in electronic form, using cathode-ray tubes. The addition of color to broadcast television after further increased the popularity of television sets and an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes.

The ubiquitous television set became the display device for recorded media in the s, such as Betamax and VHS , which enabled viewers to record TV shows and watch prerecorded movies. In the subsequent decades, Television sets were used to watch DVDs and Blu-ray Discs of movies and other content. Major TV manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, plasma and fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mids.

Televisions since s mostly use LEDs. The earliest systems employed a spinning disk to create and reproduce images. The cathode-ray tube CRT is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns a source of electrons or electron emitter and a fluorescent screen used to view images. The images may represent electrical waveforms oscilloscope , pictures television, computer monitor , radar targets or others.

The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep i. long from front screen face to rear end , fairly heavy, and relatively fragile. As a matter of safety, the face is typically made of thick lead glass so as to be highly shatter-resistant and to block most X-ray emissions, particularly if the CRT is used in a consumer product. In television sets and computer monitors , the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster.

An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams , one for each additive primary color red, green, and blue with a video signal as a reference. Digital Light Processing DLP is a type of video projector technology that uses a digital micromirror device.

Some DLPs have a TV tuner, which makes them a type of TV display. It was originally developed in by Dr. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments.

While the DLP imaging device was invented by Texas Instruments, the first DLP based projector was introduced by Digital Projection Ltd in Digital Projection and Texas Instruments were both awarded Emmy Awards in for invention of the DLP projector technology.

DLP is used in a variety of display applications from traditional static displays to interactive displays and also non-traditional embedded applications including medical, security, and industrial uses. DLP technology is used in DLP front projectors standalone projection units for classrooms and business primarily , but also in private homes; in these cases, the image is projected onto a projection screen.

DLP is also used in DLP rear projection television sets and digital signs. A plasma display panel PDP is a type of flat panel display common to large television displays 30 inches 76 cm or larger. They are called " plasma " displays because the technology uses small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases , or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent lamps. Liquid-crystal-display televisions LCD TV are television sets that use LCD display technology to produce images.

LCD televisions are much thinner and lighter than cathode-ray tube CRTs of similar display size, and are available in much larger sizes e. When manufacturing costs fell, this combination of features made LCDs practical for television receivers. LCDs come in two types: those using cold cathode fluorescent lamps, simply called LCDs and those using LED as backlight called as LEDs. In , LCD television sets surpassed sales of CRT-based television sets worldwide for the first time, and their sales figures relative to other technologies accelerated.

LCD television sets have quickly displaced the only major competitors in the large-screen market, the Plasma display panel and rear-projection television. Other technologies address these weaknesses, including OLEDs , FED and SED , but as of [update] none of these have entered widespread production.

An OLED organic light-emitting diode is a light-emitting diode LED in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound which emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent.

OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens. It is also used for computer monitors, portable systems such as mobile phones , handheld game consoles and PDAs. There are two main groups of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell or LEC, which has a slightly different mode of operation.

OLED displays can use either passive-matrix PMOLED or active-matrix AMOLED addressing schemes. Active-matrix OLEDs require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes. An OLED display works without a backlight. Thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display LCD.

In low ambient light conditions such as a dark room an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD, whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or LED backlight. OLEDs are expected to replace other forms of display in near future. It is used in handheld television. The most common source of LDTV programming is the Internet, where mass distribution of higher-resolution video files could overwhelm computer servers and take too long to download.

Many mobile phones and portable devices such as Apple 's iPod Nano , or Sony's PlayStation Portable use LDTV video, as higher-resolution files would be excessive to the needs of their small screens × and × pixels respectively. The current generation of iPod Nanos have LDTV screens, as do the first three generations of iPod Touch and iPhone × For the first years of its existence, YouTube offered only one, low-definition resolution of xp at 30fps or less.

Standard-definition television or SDTV refers to two different resolutions: i , with interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems; and i based on the American National Television System Committee NTSC system. SDTV is a television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high-definition television p , i , p , p , 4K UHDTV , and 8K UHD or enhanced-definition television EDTV p. In North America, digital SDTV is broadcast in the same aspect ratio as NTSC signals with widescreen content being center cut.

Older programs with a aspect ratio are shown in the United States as with non-ATSC countries preferring to reduce the horizontal resolution by anamorphically scaling a pillarboxed image.

High-definition television HDTV provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of standard-definition television. The Consumer Electronics Association announced on 17 October , that "Ultra High Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be used for displays that have an aspect ratio of at least and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting natural video at a minimum resolution of × pixels.

North American consumers purchase a new television set on average every seven years, and the average household owns 2. Getting TV programming shown to the public can happen in many other ways.

After production, the next step is to market and deliver the product to whichever markets are open to using it. This typically happens on two levels:. First-run programming is increasing on subscription services outside of the United States, but few domestically produced programs are syndicated on domestic free-to-air FTA elsewhere.

This practice is increasing, however, generally on digital-only FTA channels or with subscriber-only, first-run material appearing on FTA. Unlike United States, repeat FTA screenings of an FTA network program usually only occur on that network.

Also, affiliates rarely buy or produce non-network programming that is not focused on local programming. Television genres include a broad range of programming types that entertain, inform, and educate viewers.

The most expensive entertainment genres to produce are usually dramas and dramatic miniseries. However, other genres, such as historical Western genres, may also have high production costs. Pop culture entertainment genres include action-oriented shows such as police, crime, detective dramas, horror, or thriller shows. As well, there are also other variants of the drama genre, such as medical dramas and daytime soap operas. Sci-fi series can fall into either the drama or action category, depending on whether they emphasize philosophical questions or high adventure.

Comedy is a popular genre which includes situation comedy sitcom and animated series for the adult demographic such as Comedy Central's South Park. The least expensive forms of entertainment programming genres are game shows, talk shows, variety shows, and reality television. Game shows feature contestants answering questions and solving puzzles to win prizes. Talk shows contain interviews with film, television, music and sports celebrities and public figures.

Variety shows feature a range of musical performers and other entertainers, such as comedians and magicians, introduced by a host or Master of Ceremonies. There is some crossover between some talk shows and variety shows because leading talk shows often feature performances by bands, singers, comedians, and other performers in between the interview segments.

Reality television series "regular" people i. A derived version of reality shows depicts celebrities doing mundane activities such as going about their everyday life The Osbournes , Snoop Dogg's Father Hood or doing regular jobs The Simple Life. Fictional television programs that some television scholars and broadcasting advocacy groups argue are " quality television ", include series such as Twin Peaks and The Sopranos.

Kristin Thompson argues that some of these television series exhibit traits also found in art films , such as psychological realism, narrative complexity, and ambiguous plotlines. Nonfiction television programs that some television scholars and broadcasting advocacy groups argue are "quality television", include a range of serious, noncommercial, programming aimed at a niche audience, such as documentaries and public affairs shows.

Around the world, broadcast television is financed by government, advertising, licensing a form of tax , subscription, or any combination of these. To protect revenues, subscription television channels are usually encrypted to ensure that only subscribers receive the decryption codes to see the signal.

Unencrypted channels are known as free to air or FTA. In , the global TV market represented 1, Television's broad reach makes it a powerful and attractive medium for advertisers.

Many television networks and stations sell blocks of broadcast time to advertisers "sponsors" to fund their programming. Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes as well as program-length infomercials. Advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods, services and ideas since the beginning of television.

The effects of television advertising upon the viewing public and the effects of mass media in general have been the subject of discourse by philosophers including Marshall McLuhan.

The viewership of television programming, as measured by companies such as Nielsen Media Research , is often used as a metric for television advertisement placement, and consequently, for the rates charged to advertisers to air within a given network, television program, or time of day called a "daypart".

In many countries, including the United States, television campaign advertisements are considered indispensable for a political campaign. In other countries, such as France, political advertising on television is heavily restricted, [] while some countries, such as Norway , completely ban political advertisements.

The first official, paid television advertisement was broadcast in the United States on 1 July , over New York station WNBT now WNBC before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Watch Time", was shown in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute.

was on ITV on 22 September , advertising Gibbs SR toothpaste. The first TV ad broadcast in Asia was on Nippon Television in Tokyo on 28 August , advertising Seikosha now Seiko , which also displayed a clock with the current time. Since inception in the US in , [] television commercials have become one of the most effective, persuasive, and popular methods of selling products of many sorts, especially consumer goods.

During the s and into the s, programs were hosted by single advertisers. This, in turn, gave great creative control to the advertisers over the content of the show. Perhaps due to the quiz show scandals in the s, [] networks shifted to the magazine concept, introducing advertising breaks with other advertisers. advertising rates are determined primarily by Nielsen ratings. The time of the day and popularity of the channel determine how much a TV commercial can cost.

Conversely, lesser-viewed time slots , such as early mornings and weekday afternoons, are often sold in bulk to producers of infomercials at far lower rates. In recent years, the paid program or infomercial has become common, usually in lengths of 30 minutes or one hour. Some drug companies and other businesses have even created "news" items for broadcast, known in the industry as video news releases , paying program directors to use them. Some television programs also deliberately place products into their shows as advertisements, a practice started in feature films [] and known as product placement.

For example, a character could be drinking a certain kind of soda, going to a particular chain restaurant , or driving a certain make of car. This is sometimes very subtle, with shows having vehicles provided by manufacturers for low cost in exchange as a product placement.

Sometimes, a specific brand or trade mark , or music from a certain artist or group, is used. This excludes guest appearances by artists who perform on the show. The TV regulator oversees TV advertising in the United Kingdom. Its restrictions have applied since the early days of commercially funded TV. Despite this, an early TV mogul, Roy Thomson , likened the broadcasting licence as being a "licence to print money".

Other broadcasters must average no more than nine minutes twelve in the peak. This means that many imported TV shows from the U. have unnatural pauses where the British company does not use the narrative breaks intended for more frequent U. Advertisements must not be inserted in the course of certain specific proscribed types of programs which last less than half an hour in scheduled duration; this list includes any news or current affairs programs, documentaries, and programs for children; additionally, advertisements may not be carried in a program designed and broadcast for reception in schools or in any religious broadcasting service or other devotional program or during a formal Royal ceremony or occasion.

There also must be clear demarcations in time between the programs and the advertisements. The BBC , being strictly non-commercial, is not allowed to show advertisements on television in the U. The majority of its budget comes from television license fees see below and broadcast syndication , the sale of content to other broadcasters.

Broadcast advertising is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Some TV channels are partly funded from subscriptions ; therefore, the signals are encrypted during broadcast to ensure that only the paying subscribers have access to the decryption codes to watch pay television or specialty channels. Most subscription services are also funded by advertising. Television services in some countries may be funded by a television licence or a form of taxation, which means that advertising plays a lesser role or no role at all.

For example, some channels may carry no advertising at all and some very little, including:. The British Broadcasting Corporation 's TV service carries no television advertising on its UK channels and is funded by an annual television licence paid by the occupiers of premises receiving live telecasts.

As of [update] it was estimated that approximately The Australian Broadcasting Corporation 's television services in Australia carry no advertising by external sources; it is banned under the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act , which also ensures its the editorial independence. The ABC receives most of its funding from the Australian Government some revenue is received from its Commercial division , but it has suffered progressive funding cuts under Liberal governments since the Howard government , [] with particularly deep cuts in under the Turnbull government , [] and an ongoing indexation freeze as of [update].

In France, government-funded channels carry advertisements, yet those who own television sets have to pay an annual tax "la redevance audiovisuelle". In Japan, NHK is paid for by license fees known in Japanese as reception fee 受信料 , Jushinryō. The broadcast law that governs NHK's funding stipulates that any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay.

The fee is standardized, with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. Broadcast programming, or TV listings in the United Kingdom, is the practice of organizing television programs in a schedule, with broadcast automation used to regularly change the scheduling of TV programs to build an audience for a new show, retain that audience, or compete with other broadcasters' programs.

Television has played a pivotal role in the socialization of the 20th and 21st centuries. There are many aspects of television that can be addressed, including negative issues such as media violence.

Current research is discovering that individuals suffering from social isolation can employ television to create what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation.

The article "The Good Things about Television" [] argues that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for children if used wisely.

With respect to faith, many Christian denominations use television for religious broadcasting. Methodist denominations in the conservative holiness movement , such as the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection and the Evangelical Wesleyan Church , eschew the use of the television. Many Traditional Catholic congregations such as the Society of Saint Pius X SSPX , as with Laestadian Lutherans , and Conservative Anabaptists such as the Dunkard Brethren Church , oppose the presence of television in the household, teaching that it is an occasion of sin.

Children, especially those aged 5 or younger, are at risk of injury from falling televisions. A study in The Journal of Human Resources , found that exposure to cable television reduced cognitive ability and high school graduation rates for boys. This effect was stronger for boys from more educated families.

The article suggests a mechanism where light television entertainment crowds out more cognitively stimulating activities.

With high lead content in CRTs and the rapid diffusion of new flat-panel display technologies, some of which LCDs use lamps which contain mercury , there is growing concern about electronic waste from discarded televisions. Related occupational health concerns exist, as well, for disassemblers removing copper wiring and other materials from CRTs.

Further environmental concerns related to television design and use relate to the devices' increasing electrical energy requirements. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images. This article is about television as a medium.

For the appliance itself, see television set. For other uses, see Television disambiguation. For other uses, see TV disambiguation. Main article: History of television. Main article: Mechanical television.

Further information: Video camera tube. Main article: Color television. Main article: Digital television. See also: Digital television transition. Main article: Smart television. Not to be confused with Internet television , Internet Protocol television , or Web television.

Main article: 3D television. Main article: Terrestrial television. See also: Timeline of the introduction of television in countries. Main article: Cable television. See also: Cable television by region. Main article: Satellite television. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Streaming television. Not to be confused with Smart television , Internet Protocol television , or Web television.

Main article: Television set. Main article: Display device. Main article: Nipkow disk. Main article: Cathode-ray tube. Main article: Digital Light Processing. Main article: Plasma display. Main article: Liquid crystal display. Main article: Organic light-emitting diode. Main article: Low-definition television. Main article: Standard-definition television. Main article: High-definition television. Main article: Ultra-high-definition television.

See also: Television show , Video production , and Television studio. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

No data. Main article: Television advertisement. Main article: Broadcast programming. See also: TV listings UK. Main articles: Social aspects of television and Television consumption. Television portal. B-television Broadcast-safe Content discovery platform Information-action ratio List of countries by number of television broadcast stations List of television manufacturers List of years in television Lists of television channels Media psychology MicroLED Sign language on television Telephilia Television studies TV accessory.

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